Sunday, January 12, 2020

The Joy Luck Club

joyHigh-context Cultures and Low-context Cultures The Joy Luck Club  explores the clash between Chinese culture and American culture. One way of understanding the difference is to look at communication in these cultures. Chinese culture can be classified as a high-context culture and American culture as a low-context culture. First I will define these terms, then explain the significance of these two categories, and finally apply them to The Joy Luck Club. * Culture  is the way of living which a group of people has developed and transmitsfrom one generation to the next.It includes concepts, skills, habits of thinking and acting, arts, institutions, ways of relating to the world, and agreement on what is significant and necessary to know. Race, ethnicity, class, and gender are cultural creations; they derive their meanings from the culture. * Context  is the whole situation, background, or environment connected to an event, a situation, or an individual. * A  high-context cult ure  is a culture in which the individual has internalized meaning and information, so that little is explicitly stated in written or spoken messages.In conversation, the listener knows what is meant; because the speaker and listener share the same knowledge and assumptions, the listener can piece together the speaker's meaning. China is a high-context culture. * A  low-context culture  is one in which information and meanings are explicitly stated in the message or communication. Individuals in a low-context culture expect explanations when statements or situations are unclear, as they often are. Information and meaning are not internalized by the individual but are derived from context, e. . , from the situation or an event. The United States is a low-context culture. High-context Cultures In a high-context culture, the individual acquires cultural information and meaning from obedience to authority, through observation and by imitation. To acquire knowledge in this way and to internalize it, children must be carefully trained. High-context cultures are highly stable and slow to change, for they are rooted in the past; one example is the Chinese practice of ancestor worship. They are also unified and cohesive cultures.In such cultures, the individual must know what is meant at the covert or unexpressed level; the individual is supposed to know and to react appropriately. Others are expected to understand without explanation or specific details. Explanations are insulting, as if the speaker regards the listener as not knowledgeable or socialized enough to understand. To members of a low-context culture, speakers in a high-context culture seem to talk around a subject and never to get to the point. The bonds among people are very strong in a high-context culture.People in authority are personally and literally responsible for the actions of subordinates, whether in government, in business, or in the family. (In the U. S. , on the other hand, the general practice is to find a â€Å"fall guy† or scapegoat who takes the blame for those with more power and status. ) In a high-context culture, the forms (conventional ways of behaving) are important; the individual who does not observe the forms is perceived negatively; the negative judgments for an individual's bad behavior may extend to the entire family.In embarrassing or awkward situations, people act as though nothing happened. Individuality, minor disagreements, and personality clashes are ignored, so that no action has to be taken. Taking action tends to be taken seriously, because once started an action must generally be completed. Individuals can't stop an action because they change their minds, because they develop another interest, because unforeseen consequences arise, or because something better comes along.Consequently there is greater caution or even reluctance to initiate an undertaking or to give a promise. Chinese parents may overlook a child's behavior, because they expect that the strong family tradition, which is based on ancestors, will cause the child ultimately to behave properly. The Clash of Low-context and High-context Cultures in  The Joy Luck Club In a low-context culture, as Edward T. Hall explains, â€Å"Most of the information must be in the transmitted message in order to make up for what is missing in the context (both internal and external). In a low-context culture change is rapid and easy; bonds between people are looser; action is undertaken easily and can be changed or stopped once initiated. The mothers in  The Joy Luck Club  expect their daughters to obey their elders and so learn by obedience, by observation and by imitation, as they did in China. Their elders did not explain. Because the mothers internalized values and knowledge, they seem to assume that knowledge is innate and that it is present in their daughters and only has to be brought out or activated.The internalization is so psychologically complete and so much a part of the mothers' identities that they speak of it as physical. Am-mei, for instance, sees in her mother â€Å"my own true nature. What was beneath my skin. Inside my bones† (p. 40); to her, connection to her mother or filial respect is â€Å"so deep it is in your bones† (p. 41). But in this country, the mothers' warnings, instructions, and example are not supported by the context of American culture, and so their daughters do not understand. They resent and misinterpret their mothers' alien Chinese ways and beliefs.Similarly, the mothers do not understand why they do not have the kind of relationships with their daughters that they had with their mothers in China. The Joy Luck mothers were so close to their own mothers that they saw themselves as continuations of their mothers, like stairs. The communication problems that arise when one speaker is from a high-context culture and the other is from a low-context culture can be seen in the conversations of June and Suyuen, â€Å"My mother and I never really understood one another.We translated each other's meanings and I seemed to hear less than what was said, while my mother heard more† (p. 27). June looks for meaning in what is stated and does not understand that her mother omits important information because she assumes her daughter knows it and can infer it; her mother, on the other hand, looks for meaning in what has not been stated and so adds to what has been stated explicitly and comes up with meanings that surprise her daughter.The difficulties of growing up in a family from a high-context culture and living in a low-context culture appear in other Asian-American writers. The narrator of Maxine Hong Kingston's  The Woman Warrior  is unable to decide whether figures she sees are real persons or ghosts, whether stories she is told are true or fiction, what the meaning of those stories is, why she is told the stories, and whether an event really happens or is imagi ned. The Talk Story One way of maintaining and instructing children in traditional ways which Chinese immigrants adopted is the traditional Chinese talk story.According to Linda Ching Sledge, the talk story â€Å"served to redefine an embattled immigrant culture by providing its members immediate, ceremonial access to ancient lore†; it also â€Å"retained the structure of Chinese oral wisdom (parables, proverbs, formulaic description, heroic biography, casuistical dialogue). † In the talk-story the narrator expects the listener to grasp the point, which is often not stated (unlike the Western  Aesop's Fables). Tan adopts the Chinese talk story in the mothers' warning stories to their daughters.The talk story serves another function in this novel; E. D. Huntley explains, Talk story enables women who have been socialized into silence for most of their lives–the  Joy Luck  mothers, for instance–to reconfigure the events of those lives into acceptable p ublic utterances: painful experiences are recast in the language of folk tale; cautionary reminders become gnomic phrases; real life takes on the contours of myth. More significantly, the act of performing talk story allows the storyteller to retain a comfortable distance between herself and her audience.Thus, the storyteller manages in some fashion to maintain the silence to which she is accustomed, as well as to speak out and share with others the important stories that have shaped her into the person that she is. An issue for both mothers and daughters is finding a voice, that is, finding a way to express the essential self. Themes in  The Joy Luck Club Identity. The stories tell of events which shape the identities of the mothers and daughters and give direction to their lives.Though David Denby is speaking of the movie, his description applies equally well to the novel, â€Å"each story centers on a moment of creation or self-destruction in a woman's life, the moment when he r identity becomes fixed forever. † The mothers do not question their identities, having come from a stable culture into which their families were integrated. Their daughters, however, are confused about their identities. Communication between American daughters and Chinese mothers.The mothers see their duty as encouraging and, if necessary, pushing their daughters to succeed; therefore, they feel they have a right to share in their success (the Chinese view). The daughters see the mothers as trying to live through them and thereby preventing them from developing as separate individuals and from leading independent lives (the American view). The link of the Chinese mothers and Chinese daughters. The Chinese mothers form a continuity with their mothers in China, a connection which they want to establish with their American daughters.Love, loss, and redemption. Throughout there exists what David Gates calls a â€Å"ferocious love between mother and daughter† both in China and in this country. But the women also suffer loss, which ranges from separation to abandonment to rejection, in the mother-daughter relationship and in the male-female relationship. Sometimes the loss is overcome and the love re-established. Connection of the past and the present. The mothers' past lives in China affect their daughters' lives in this country, just as the daughters' childhood experiences affect their identities and adult lives.Power of language. Without proficiency in a common language, the Chinese mothers and American daughters cannot communicate. St. Clair cannot communicate with his wife, and so he changes her name and her birth date, taking away her identity as a tiger. Lena St. Clair mistranslates for her father and for her mother. Also, words have great power. Expectation and reality. The mothers have great hopes for their daughters; their expectations for their daughters include not just success but also freedom.They do not want their daughters' lives to be determined by a rigid society and convention, as in an arranged marriage, and made unhappy as theirs were. The American reality fulfilled their expectations in unanticipated and unacceptable ways. Another way of expressing this theme is The American Dream and its fulfillment. Chinese culture versus American culture. This conflict appears throughout the novel, from the struggles of the mothers and daughters to Lena St. Clair's Chinese eyes and American appearance and Lindo Jong's Chinese face and her American face.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Painting At The Oklahoma City Museum Of Art - 1209 Words

On September 4, 2016, I visited the Matisse in His Time exhibit at the Oklahoma City Museum of Art. This exhibit is home to a plethora of pieces by many different European artists from the 19th and 20th centuries. While it is focused on Matisse and his extensive works, containing more than 50 of his pieces, there are many portraits and sculptures by other influential artists from that time period including Renoir, Picasso, and Georges Braque. Three of the most appealing works that I encountered in this exhibit are Maurice de Vlaminck’s Portrait of Pà ¨re Bouju, Pablo Picasso’s Reclining Woman on a Blue Divan, and Henri Matisse’s sculpture series Henriette I, Henriette II, and Henriette III. One of the most visually intriguing pieces in the exhibit is the Portrait of Pà ¨re Bouju by Maurice de Vlaminck. It was painted around the year 1900 by the French artist. It is not particularly beautiful by normal standards. At first glance, the texture of the paint stands out more than any other feature. It has very strongly defined brush strokes and thick paint in portions, especially the face of the man and the background. The lines in the paint are mostly straight, short, and wide with some that are thinner and wavy, like the smoke. The man is in the center of the canvas, he is the only discernable image, and he is almost devoid of detail aside from the face and the hat. The colors are almost entirely neutral aside from the red scarf. In this oil on canvas portrait the man is wearing aShow MoreRelatedThe Midwestern Comtemporary Art Museum4232 Words   |  17 PagesCase Analysis Summary of Facts and Circumstances The Midwestern:: Contemporary Art (MCA) Museum is one of the nation’s largest facilities devoted to modern art, opening its doors to Great Lakes in 1967. The MCA bought its first building, a three story townhouse, in 1977. In January of 1989, the MCA board hired Keith Schmidt as executive director. In April of 1989, a man with the name of Peter Smith began his chairmanship at MCA, after already being on the board since 1981. Peter Smith and KeithRead MoreReaction and Analysis on Film and Stage Version of Rent5058 Words   |  21 PagesLarson’s  Pulitzer  and  Tony Award-winning musical. The movie depicts the lives of several Bohemians  and their struggles with  sexuality, cross-dressing,  drugs, life under the shadow of AIDS, and paying their rent. It takes place in the  East Village  of New York City in the late 1980s. SYNOPSIS After an introduction with the cast singing Seasons of Love, the film opens with apartment tenants expressing their anger with suddenly being asked to pay rent which had previously been waived by the landlord. CollinsRead MoreIroquois Confederacy9092 Words   |  37 PagesGermany in 1917, the Iroquois Confederacy issued its own independent declaration and claimed status as an allied nation in the war effort. In 1949 a Haudenosaunee delegation attended groundbreaking ceremonies for the United Nations building in New York City. Iroquois statesmen and athletes use Haudenosaunee passports as they travel around the world. Protecting the land is another priority. Since the 1940s, the Haudenosaunee have been involved in land issues involving projects as varied as the KenzuaRead MoreCeramics: Pottery and Clay17443 Words   |  70 Pageschange into a modern period, until now we still recognize the nature of CERAMICS as the one of the greatest art work in every nations. Today, the term is commonly used to describe a material used in pottery. The earliest recorded ceramics were the result of various mixtures and base - combinations, including clay. 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Its initial focus on Mumbai and Delhi was driven by the following factors: they were the two largest cities in India; their citizens enjoyed relatively high income levels compared to the rest of the country; and they were exposed to foreign food and culture. After establishing a presence in the leading cities, McDonald’s then moved to smaller satellite towns near the metropolitan cities (for example,Read More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 PagesAshley Summers Technology Project Manager: Colin Blake Marketing Manager: Joe Rogove Marketing Assistant: Jennifer Liang Marketing Communications Manager: Jessica Perry Project Manager, Editorial Production: Jennifer Risden Creative Director: Rob Hugel Art Director: Vernon Boes Print Buyer: Karen Hunt Permissions Editor: Isabel Alves Production Service: Newgen–Austin Text Designer: Stuart Paterson Photo Researcher: Gretchen Miller Copy Editor: Nancy Dickson Illustrator: Jade Myers; Newgen–India Cover

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Diverse Nature of Psychology Essay - 1150 Words

Diverse Nature of Psychology Jessica Champion PSY / 490 July 2, 2012 University of Phoenix Diverse Nature of Psychology Psychology is a diverse area of study. Within this paper it will discuss the influence of diversity and it’s major concepts within psychology. It will also discuss subtopics within psychology, as well as how subtopics are identified, and applied to other disciplines within society. As well as, explain how these subtopics affect my personal theoretical perspective. Lastly, it will discuss how my contribution of studying psychology will benefit society within my area of profession in which I hope to achieve in my near future. Theorists influence of Diversity and Major concepts within Psychology Diversity has a†¦show more content†¦As follows’ psychological need has to do with an individual’s hunger, thirst and sex needs. Safety needs of an individual’s are based off of one’s protection, stability, and security. Next is the love and belongingness need, this has to do with loneliness, love, and belonging. Another need is esteem, every individual longs to have respect from others, as well as have self- respect. The last need is self -actualization which means to fulfill ones potentials. Herzberg theory of motivation differs a bit from Maslow’s. Herzberg’s theory was based off of one’s needs in a professional elements. Herzberg was trying to discover a theory that would avoid employees’ dissatisfaction and gains satisfaction within his or her work environment. So he came up with these six factors. The factors that lead to dissatisfaction are, salary, relationship with peers, company policy, work conditions, relationship with boss, and supervision. The factors that lead to satisfaction are growth, advancement, recognition, achievement, responsibility, and work itself (Herzberg, 1959). These are not separate from one another to gain satisfaction. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Development for Nonprofit Organizations †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Development for Nonprofit Organizations. Answer: Introduction: The strategy can be defined as systematic planning procedure which is designed to attain overall objectives of business by considering internal as well as external environmental factors. Strategies are highly significant for business as it assists in efficient planning and executing business activities to achieve desired goals (Walker and Madsen, 2016). The present study is based on the description of the strategy and its importance for business and non-profit organizations. The study will include challenges faced by managerial parties in implementation and development of strategy by considering relevant examples. In addition to this, the study will also include the relevance of strategy in present competitive environment. The strategy is path followed by the organization to achieve their goals and advantages over a long term. Strategy management is done through allocating resources in such a way that fulfil the needs of customers, mould business process with the changing environment and meet the expectations of stakeholders. In other words, it can be cited as, considering the direction in which where the organization must go in order to attain competitive advantage (Priem, Wenzel and Koch, 2017). It is the approach of assessing the scope of the market by which company will get to know the competitiveness and activities involved in those markets. The effective strategy ensures that business is performing its best in the market and determine activities and resources that are essential to meet the goals and attain advantages by considering the internal and external factors that will directly impact the business. Strategies are used at different stages of an organization as the existence of the same is important for all operational activities the business varying on the basis of management or a business group to individuals functioning in it (Morden, 2016). Different type of strategies is enumerated as below: Corporate strategy: This strategy concerns the total scope and aim of the firm in order to meet the expectations of stakeholders. It is a significant stage as it thoroughly influenced by business investors and guides to maintain strategic decisions within the organization (Verbeke, 2013). Corporate strategy is frequently acknowledged as a mission statement. Business unit strategy: This strategy is concerned with the competitive advantages in a specific marketplace (Peteraf, Gamble and Thompson Jr, 2014). It assesses strategy decision making regarding customer satisfaction, competitive advantages, products, driving opportunities etc. Operational strategy: It is concerned with the organizing of business activities in such a way to serve the business-unit level strategic direction. Thus, this strategy concerns on issues regarding individuals, resources and processes etc. Importance of strategy in businesses and not-for-profit organizations With the changing business environment, from stable to the competitive environment, the strategy is considered to be a vital part of attaining objectives of business set by mission and vision of business entities. Strategy plays an important role in business success as there are several reasons why strategy must be implemented. Firstly, there must be proper planning in business, and effective strategy provides actions and directing plan, it introduces a clear, precise and sound way for the same (Chen and Jermias, 2014). The strategy is inclusive of proper direction for an organization to create a road map that how goals will be achieved with a comprehensive action plan. Creating and following progress beside yearly working plan is considered as a significant management tool. The company must concern the past experience and make planning according to them in order to prevent the mistakes happened in the past few years. Subsequently, many types of research provided several concepts regarding strategic management in order to efficiently making use of firms resources to achieve their goals and objectives.Strategy refers to an integrated and complete plan intended to guarantee achievement of business objectives (Albeladi and et al., 2014). Strategy assists in organizing functions and merging them properly so as to attain competitive edge through value adding in activities to satisfy ultimate users of products provided by business entities and to attain the business goals of the mission and vision. Strategic planning enables NPO to use their human resources as well as financial resources carefully and effectively. Furthered decisions related to expenses and costs are based considerably on judgments regarding the impact they impose on improvement in services (Omar and, 2014). Nonprofit organization are mostly requested to give a strategic plan in order to enlarge charity and public welfare plans to justify funds provided by donors, alike to how business entities represent their strategies to justify capital sources of the venture (Bharadwaj and et al., 2013). The strategic plan work as a guide to NPOs group of management while ensuring that team members are also putting their efforts to achieve the same goals along with the same precedence. Challenges faced by managerial parties in implementation and development of strategy Strategies provide various benefits to business, but development and implementation of strategy in operational activities are not an easy task. For this aspect, the company has to face issues such as ineffective leadership and employee resistance (Kotler, Berger and Bickhoff, 2016). Strategic implementation starts with deciding on goals, prioritizing objectives and allocation of resources but above all it requires a leader or a manager who is familiar with systems and processes so they can develop and implement effective strategies (Madsen, 2016). They must be able to communicate effectively, motivate and encourage his team, delegate authority and monitor execution. Strategic implementation requires a lot of planning in alignment with mission or vision, sense of urgency and effective leadership. The responsibility of leader doesnt stop here. They need to ensure that people understand the strategy, buy into it and take decisions and actions accordingly. Further, strategies must be measured and monitored from time to time. The main strategies should be related to price, product and customer specific solutions should be according to customer needs (Eden and Ackermann, 2013). Different strategies require different styles of leadership and different organizational behaviours. The attitude of people in the organization depends on customer proposition, behaviour of leader, processes and structure, commitment. Effective leaders lead and manage strategy implementation by aligning people to the organizational goals (Booth, 2015). Ineffective leadership leads to great resistance in implementing strategies. Ineffective leaders generally do not display coura ge and are also not determined to push the initiative to achieving the desired outcomes. The strategy is properly executed when there is a balancing act among the workforce and their commitment towards organizational development. However, implementation of the strategy is typical due to employee resistance. It is the act of struggling or opposing the changes, modifications in the work place. In every business change is inevitable (Peteraf, Gamble and Thompson Jr, 2014). Leaders need to manage change with minimal disruption if it is not handled properly there is more resistance than necessary. Resistance to change is not a problem but what matters is how it is managed. The success of the venture is threatened by resistance to change. It can largely affect the productivity, quality, communication, employee commitment in a workplace. The introduction of new strategy involves a lot of planning like managing the stages of strategy adoption, integrating work environment, managing employee unhappiness and resistance (Burke, 2017). Employees actions are to be observed like late assignments, absenteeism, verbal criticism, remarks, missing meetings related to change, talking to them about changes can help in spotting resistance to change. Some employees may need help in navigating the change. The more powerful the employee resistance, in terms of job title, position etc. the more success they will have with their resistance. If the employees have insufficient support in gaining result the resistance to the strategy may intensify (Bryce, 2017). Organizations having the culture of support, trust, involved and engaged employees and positive relationships can handle implementation and development of new strategies. Relevance of strategy in present competitive environment The relevance of strategies is not affected in present competitive environment as strategic thinking is inclusive of the direction of external and internal business environment. The elements of the external business environment such as economic and technical are considered to be chief factors driving opportunities and threats for the business (Omar and et al., 2014). The never ending demand of the society is again a significant factor that must be kept in mind regarding defining the competitive strategy by considering strength and weakness of the business entities.Thus strategies are prepared on the basis of changing market conditions not merely as per traditional theories. In accordance with the study of Burke (2017), planning for activities will not be successful if it is not supported by appropriate strategy. Further, businesses need a strategy for ways by which they are conducting experiments, as they need to widen their direction and scope of the experiments to ensure success. Conventionally, the main focus has been given to providing of new products and services to the customers (Booth, 2015). However, with the increasingly unstable environment business process also becomes quickly outdated and unpredictable. Thus, companies are required to revive their strategies to frequently adapt changes and make use of broad experimenting prior to their competitors. For this aspect, an example of Ikea can be considered as the company describes the experimenting power along with business models to their wide range of products. Companies like Ikea holds current assets and liabilities to do experiment with the business models. After entering in the market of Russia, managers considerably observed that each time the company opens an outlet, the value of nearer real estates improved drastically (Morden, 2016). Further, Ikea made a decision to simultaneously discover two business models which were dealing with their stores and outlets and driving the pleasure in the values of real estates through the development of malls. At present, it generates more revenue by developing malls rather than from its Conventional business of retail. Ultimately, experimenting without appropriate strategy also fundamentally generates a failure. For example, Intuit (a software company), has become very successful initially while adopting new approaches to develop business. In 2005, it initiated an advertising campaign in order to get through young filers of tax by making use of website named (Goffin and Mitchell, 2016). The website provided discounts and schemes at Best Buy and Expedia and attained refunds of tax in the way of prepaid vouchers. The campaign resulted in major failure, as no one makes use of the website. Above description shows that strategy in current competitive environment assist in the allocation of resource regarding the selection of the type of product and services will be the part of a portfolio of the company. An effective strategy in these decisions is used to guarantee greatest returns. Lastly, it assists in modifying operation plans as changing internal and external environmental factors which create a positive impact on companys position (Kotler, Berger and Bickhoff, 2016). It makes entities alert and prepared for possible in market shifts and offers opportunities to take actions to implement. It is because; strategy builds a peak level self-awareness and offers a superior focus on resources and activities which will assist in making the business more successful. In addition to this, the strategy also states and serves strategic decisions in designing and tracking the organization. Conclusion In accordance with the present study, conclusion can be drawn that strategies are a vital part of business planning as it assists in the viable roadmap to achieve desired objectives. Further, irrespective of nature of business all organizations are required to make use of strategies to ensure their operational success. However, development and implementation of the strategy is not an easy job as managers have to face issues such as ineffective leadership, resistance by employees and work culture issues. Thus, businesses are required to implement the strategy by using appropriate tools and techniques. The study also shows that strategy is significant for entities irrespective of changing market conditions and increasing competition. References Albeladi, K.S., Khan, U.A. and Khan, P.M., 2014, March. Driving business value through an effective IT strategy development. InComputing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2014 International Conference on(pp. 561-563). IEEE. Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O.A., Pavlou, P.A. and Venkatraman, N.V., 2013. Digital business strategy: toward the next generation of insights. Booth, S.A., 2015.Crisis management strategy: Competition and change in modern enterprises. Routledge. Bryce, H.J., 2017.Financial and strategic management for nonprofit organizations. Walter de Gruyter GmbH Co KG. Burke, W.W., 2017.Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications. Chen, Y. and Jermias, J., 2014. Business strategy, executive compensation and firm performance.Accounting Finance,54(1), pp.113-134. Eden, C. and Ackermann, F., 2013.Making strategy: The journey of strategic management. Sage. Goffin, K. and Mitchell, R., 2016.Innovation Management: Effective Strategy and Implementation. Palgrave Macmillan. Kotler, P., Berger, R. and Bickhoff, N., 2016.The quintessence of strategic management: What you really need to know to survive in business. Springer. Madsen, T.L., 2016. Business Policy and Strategy. Morden, T., 2016.Principles of strategic management. Routledge. Omar, A.T., Leach, D. and March, J., 2014. Collaboration between nonprofit and business sectors: a framework to guide strategy development for nonprofit organizations.Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations,25(3), pp.657-678. Peteraf, M., Gamble, J. and Thompson Jr, A., 2014.Essentials of strategic management: The quest for competitive advantage. McGraw-Hill Education. Priem, R.L., Wenzel, M. and Koch, J., 2017. Demand-side strategy and business models: Putting value creation for consumers centre stage.Long Range Planning. Verbeke, A., 2013.International business strategy. Cambridge University Press. Walker, G. and Madsen, T.L., 2016.Modern competitive strategy. McGraw-Hill Education.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Julius Caesar, Mark Anthonys speech Essay Example

Julius Caesar, Mark Anthonys speech Paper After analysing Mark Anthonys speech at Julius Caesars funeral, I have come to some conclusions about the persuasive techniques used by Shakespeare to manipulate the crowd within the story and to turn the plebeians against Brutus and the other conspirators. The speech is also used to stop the commons making Brutus Caesar. Brutus has allowed Mark Anthony to give a speech at Julius Caesars funeral but only after Brutus has given his side of the story, by now Brutus has all the commons/plebeians support. During his speech Brutus offers his life. Mark Anthony starts his speech with the words You gentle Romans this sounds as if he is taking pity on them immediately drawing their full attention to him. Next he addresses them as Friends, Romans, countrymen this is appealing to their consciousness as citizens of Rome Brutus but also by addressing them using the three words it becomes more personal instead of everyone. Immediately Mark Anthony states his reason for his presence this being that he has come to bury Caesar, not to praise him, this is because the commons have turned against Caesar and so do not want to hear good of him. Also by saying this it put Mark Anthony on their side. We will write a custom essay sample on Julius Caesar, Mark Anthonys speech specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Julius Caesar, Mark Anthonys speech specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Julius Caesar, Mark Anthonys speech specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It is at this point were told that while good is buried with the dead the evil lives on after them. This tells the commons that what Brutus has done will long be remembered whereas the good Caesar did Rome will be forgotten quickly. Like it already has. After this Mark Anthony says that Brutus Believed Caesar to be ambitious, if so it were, it was a grievous fault and grievously hath Caesar answered for it by using if Mark Anthony questions Brutuss judgement but also it seem as if Caesar died for this mans judgement. We are also told that he speaks under the watch of Brutus and the rest this told more subtly that Brutus is not in this alone. For Brutus is a honourable man so are they all; honourable men this is this is a use of sarcastic / ironic language telling us that Brutus is not the only instigator within this conspiracy. Another way he manipulates the crowd is by using the pattern of three, this technique is used to state something good about Caesar, then to compare it against the point that Brutus believed him to be ambitious. Then lastly he tells us that Brutus is honourable. This is another use of ironic language as Mark Anthony is comparing the truth about Caesar against Brutus opinion of Caesar But then pointing out that Brutus must be right as everyone thinks he is an honourable man Another reason for Mark Anthonys choice of words in this passage is that he is able to state firstly that he is not allowed to speak his mind as he is under the watch off Brutus. This also tells us that Brutus is higher up than Mark Anthony. Irony comes in to the speech because if Brutus was truly honourable then he would allow for Mark Anthony to speak freely, this shows the plebeians that Brutus is obviously not honourable and that they were wrong in thinking he was. Repetition Mark Anthony sounds very sincere when he says, The noble Brutus hath told you Caesar was ambitious For Brutus is an honourable man. This makes Mark Anthony seem a friend of Brutus allowing him to gently sway the crowd but also this tells Brutus that he is speaking no bad of him. He repeats that statement three more times becoming increasingly sarcastic, saying finally, Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, and Brutus is an honourable man. Since the people responded positively to Brutus speech, Anthony could not insult Brutus honesty in a direct manner. But instead Anthony disproves Caesars ambition with three examples. One is when he gave the ransom of captives to the public treasury and not his own, another when he cried with the poor people, and finally when he refused the kingship that Anthony offered him, three times. Anyone who was ambitious would never have done any such things. Anthony says, I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke. but in fact this is exactly what he does. When giving his speech Mark Anthony repeats the names of the instigators especially Brutus and the fact that they are all so honourable. He does to state their reputation but in fact showing the crowd that they are not honourable at all this when stating he fears to do them wrong, or He was my friend, faithful and just to me Mark Anthony has made the speech more effective by talking from personal experience and so it can not be argued as this is fact unlike Brutus reason as his is an opinion. Rhetorical One technique used by Mark Anthony is rhetorical questions. These are used when questioning Brutus Was this ambition? this is used after 3 sets of poses/pattern of three when has been built up. The second rhetorical question is when Mark Anthony asks the crowd what cause withholds you then, to mourn for him? Already answered it in the question Used for dramatic effect use of impressive language By saying this he has shown the crowd that they are allowed to mourn Subsequent to this Mark Anthony gives the answer to his rhetorical question. He does this by speaking to the crowd indirectly by addressing their judgement O Judgement thou art fled to brutish beast, and men have lost their reason. By speaking indirectly to them he states that brutish beast (Brutus) has stolen their judgment/reasoning and that there is no reason for them, not to mourn. Imagery Rhythm/rhyme Poetry Emotive language As I have already said unlike Brutus appears arrogant and forceful Anthony, who is an emotional and sincere speaker, his speech comes from the heart and personal experience this to the crowd is easier to accept and is more forthcoming. The will Mark Anthony has the will of Caesar, which he reads to the commons during his speech but the timing is crucial He introduces the will almost half way into his speech when the plebeians hear of this they want to hear it this is when Mark Anthony uses it to his advantage as he is able to keep their attention for his whole speech but he is careful not to read it b4 then otherwise they may leave so he keeps it until the very end of his speech when the anticipation has been built up, using it as a climax to his speech so that when the commons leave this is what they will remember most of all. Theatrical pause Just after Mark Anthonys use of emotive language he give a theatrical pause this is to allow the plebeians to gather their thought and to reflect/contemplate on what he has just said. It also gives time for them to form a group opinion (one that is in his favour) The Cloak Is another dramatic device used in Mark Anthonys speech to manipulate the crowd in to turning against the conspirators. He now shows the physical evidence by putting his finger through the hole of the stab wounds that were made by Brutus and the other conspirator this enrages the commons making. Once more Mark Anthony speaks to the crowd O what a fall there was, my countrymen? Then I, and you, and all of us fell down This addresses them as countrymen appealing to their socialist morals to come forward and revolt but also he is naming himself a countrymen. Mark Anthonys choice of words are very important in this speech good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up To such a rage of mutiny by introducing the idea of mutiny in the commons heads, the next time Mark Anthony has taken a theatrical pause, theyve decided to mutiny. This shows that he has spoken to turn the crowd against the conspirators. Brutus is respected by the public and is very well known and so he has a reputation for being able to speak, Mark Anthony uses this to his advantage I am no orator, as Brutus is; but (as u all know me) a plain blunt man. By telling the crowd this he is automatically giving Brutus the advantage making him look the underdog. For I have neither writ word, nor worth, action nor utterance, nor the power of speech, to stir mens blood. Here he has separated himself from the crowd that is about to mutiny. Let me not stir you up to such a sudden flood of mutiny, But were I Brutus and there were an Anthony ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue in every wound of dead Caesar, that should move the stones of Rome to rise and mutiny. Here he subliminally told the crowd to mutiny and rage. Being the last to speak, the crowd listen to him Mark Anthony is a very honourable soldier who is loyal to anyone in power. He was a great friend to Caesar and thought very highly of him. He is extremely angry at Caesars death. He is a very cunning man as can be seen in the second part of the scene and he is able to manipulate people. He cared a lot for Caesar and as a result he grieved a lot when Caesar was killed. Because he was very close to Caesar he wants revenge and, although he can hide it, has a lot of hatred for the conspirators who killed Caesar. At first it seemed that he was so upset that Caesar had died that he would wish to die also. However, later he seems to decide that revenging his death would be a better way. He knows the conspirators only as other Romans, he does not know them as friends and knows very little about them. As a result he may not know about Cassius cunning mind that has already discovered Mark Anthonys plan for revenge.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Theories of Leadership and the Effective organisations Change

Introduction Organisationsal change is a contribution to the organisation leadership. Prudent leadership, therefore, becomes a key to any organisation that aspires to change its way of operation or service delivering to the targeted stakeholders (CanÃŒÆ'as, 2001). Change may be witnessed in the terms of goods and services, as well as organisation’s operations in both management and business, among other areas (Yeo, 2001).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theories of Leadership and the Effective organisations Change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The idea behind a business change means a possible risk of value in an organisation. With all these factors being constant, organisations change requires sound decision making from the organisations leadership. It is noted that leaders consider different quality hence subjecting their organisations to different changes (Covey, 2004). The changes witnessed depend o n the leader’s qualities and exposure, among others, like the environment issues. There are various theories of leadership which elaborate how leadership in an organisations affects its possible changes, for example, â€Å"Great Man† Theory, Trait Theory, Situational Theory, Behavioral Theory, Contingency Theory, Participative Theory, Management Theory and Relationship Theory (Tomey, 2009). Each leader may have the qualities of one or more theories, hence contributing differently to the organisation. Leaders mentor, control and manage others in the organisation and organisations development, or any kind of change depends on the top leadership. A leader that posses many quality factors has an impact all through the business environment hence initiating the most desired changes in the organisation (Novick, 2008). â€Å"Great Man† Theory According to this theory, leaders are born, and leadership skills are inherited from the parents. According to this theory, leade rs are not made, and one must come from a background of leaders hence making this quality to be of particular use in the society (Sennett, 2006). Leaders, as proclaimed by this theory, foster change and stability in there area of operation with courage and stability. If this theory is used, it then means that the current organisation can not be managed or led by somebody who relies on the education but it is managed by the sons and daughters of former managers or leaders (Novick, 2008). This is a discriminating idea of leadership.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This theory kills innovativeness in the organisations hence leaving all the organisations duties, mainly in decision making, dependent on one leader. As far as effective organisations change is concerned, â€Å"Great Man† theory do not add value, thus all the decisions in an organisations should be resolved by a group of leaders but not by one single great leader because organisations has different department which requires different exposures for one to manage a change (Northouse, 2009). The use of this theory could not be able to effectively manage a worthy change in an organisation, and everything should be embraced to make change in the area of the operation. This theory discourages effective organisations change mainly because it creates an fair authority of one particular person within an organisation hence limiting the decision making process whereby all decisions must come from a single leader, and a particular organisations must be led by a particular leader from a particular background (Northouse, 2007). Holding all the factors constant, this limits diversification whereby different style of leadership is required. Diversification helps to manage different interests in different organisations environment. It is currently encouraged that for an organisation to effectively mange a change, the leaders of different unit must be willing and able to work as a team and not a particular single leader. This theory is been practiced in political field in countries that do not embrace democracy. This kind of leadership does not embrace change of the notion, both socially and economically, hence been rated as a poor leadership practice (Krajewski, 2010). Trait Theory It is similar to the great man theory but it mostly relies on qualities shared by the leaders. Having a similar quality as compared to another leader fails to define the leadership quality due to the changing environment in an organisations (Northouse, 2010). All the same, leaders, according to this theory, do have similar traits. They do not have the same qualities, but they have one objective goal, change.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theories of Leadership and the Effective organisations Change specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ability to change the quality of the organisations goods and services and the organisations culture within the organisations defines a good leader (Larson, 2011). A good leader has a dream and a vision which he or she wishes to achieve within a particular time frame (Larson, 2011). This is different from the theory’s primary objective whereby it identifies leaders of the same traits but of different goals and vision in a particular area in an organisations. To make a constructive change in an organisations, it turns to be a process but not an event as it can be provided by the theory whereby it identifies leaders with similarities in character and behavior. A leader who provides a change in an organisations must be willing to push to the accomplishment of his or her goals and vision in that particular area (Morgan, 2006). If trait theory is a subject to go up with, it means that the individual quality, vision and willingness to change things will not help the organisation s to identify the desired leaders but only their similarities in some traits. Similarities in traits can not make a good leader, and hence organisations should embrace a vision leadership for them to uncover change. Situational Theory Organisationsal change goes hand in hand with leadership prudence. It is with this notion that situational theory provides a platform where every situation depends on different leader’s action or decision (Northouse, 2010). This theory accommodates different decisions in different organisationsal environments hence facilitating organisationsal change. Every organisations unit, as far as situation theory is concerned, should have its leader who has the right to consult with other stakeholders within the same unit and come up with a good solution (Northouse, 2010). Therefore, leaders are advised to consult with the others, and decision making becomes a consultative move but not an individual one (Northouse, 2010). This improves the decision sensit ivity, hence making sure that the decision made is relevant to the organisations environment. Effective leadership involves the ability to accommodate others in the organisations as well as gives others a chance freely to express their views concerning a particular subject (Nohria, 2010).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can improve the decision making process as well as making all stakeholders feel a part of the organisations.On the other hand, this theory embraces organisations culture where everyone plays his/her role without fear hence doing his/her the best (Northouse, 2010). This is a positive move towards the organisations change, both internally and externally. The theory provides a platform where all are given a chance to contribute to the organisationsal growth or change in a particular area of concern. A leader in this theory must be willing and able to accommodate others, and the decision should be done in a consultative way (Morgan, 2006). This provides an all inclusive environment where the organisations works as a unit, hence making it easier to make a change or to improve on a particular area of concern. Financial organisations can provide a good example where situational theory is practiced. It is worth noting that this sector is controlled by the central banks by fixing rates both to control inflation and deflation (Marquis, 2009). Leaders in this sector are expected to adopt what is necessary depending on the environmental change (Marquis, 2009). Situation leadership style helps the banks continue making profit irrespective of the economic environment facing the industry. If failed to follow the current environmental factors, the financial institution will be subjected to loses. Behavioral Theory Leaders are made, and they are not born. This is a key statement of this theory, which accommodates everyone, irrespective of the mental capacity or individual background (Lencioni, 2002.p.53). It is noted that leadership is a process which might start to develop in any organisation stakeholder, irrespective of the individual position in the organisation. To impact a change in the organisations, all the stakeholders must be willing and able to work to ward the subject area (Nohria, 2010). This can only be achieved if all are given a chance to do their best to a chieve the subject goal (Nohria, 2010). This gives everybody an opportunity to control and participate in decision masking process making the desired goal relevant, and more attention is given to the action of an individual stakeholder as opposed to individual academic and mental capacity. The ability to be flexible both in decision making and implementation makes an impact on different leaders, so everybody has a chance for a personal growth (Larson, 2011). This helps the organisations manage the current issues mainly because all the stakeholders are given a motivation to make decision and implement it within the organisations. On the other hand, the organisations units stand to grow uniformly hence posing an organisations change. It is noted that for an organisations to grow and make either social or economic change, all the stakeholders must be involved in the decision making process and implementation of the change, and individual contribution should be given a chance to promote a good organisations culture whereby growth is possible (Krajewski, 2010.p. 34). The theory provides a platform where effective leadership is exercised, hence providing the ways by which organisations change concept is possible. Contingency Theory Contingency theory embraces different leadership style depending on the environment. This is a prudent theory which allows change when it is appropriate (Kouzes, 2007). It is advisable for the organisations leadership to embrace different style to manage the environmental challenges facing the organisations. In some cases, the leader is expected to make urgent decisions without consulting the others, and in some cases, he/she may give all the stakeholders to participate in decision making process (Hill Jones, 2009). The ability to know when to involve others in the decision making process or define everything on his/her own is the leader’s ability to lead. Embracing this theory, it is possible for the organisations to manage the c hange and effectively deliver the desired quality. By observing contingency theory, the organisations posses an opportunity to grow mainly because of the leadership and decision making flexibility within its organs. Dependent on the environment, flexibility in decision making process helps the organisations take advantage of the environment, hence competing well (Hands, 2011). To limit decision making flexibility, the organisations cannot achieve the desired change, and in some cases, it will not be able to meet the market expectations (Hands, 2011). This will give other market players an upper hand, hence limiting the organisations profitability. Dependent on the environment, flexibility in decision making process helps the organisations take advantage of the environment, hence competing well (Hands, 2011). To limit decision making flexibility, the organisations cannot achieve the desired change, and in some cases, it will not be able to meet the market expectations (Hands, 2011). This will give other market players an upper hand, hence limiting the organisations profitability. Participative Theory Participative theory accounts and appreciates others’ contribution. This theory gives chance to all to involve in the decision making process as well as provides an opportunity to model their area of operation (Northouse, 2010). This kind of leadership creates an effective organisationsal change in an organisation, whereby all the stakeholders express their views on various issues affecting the organisations (Goleman, 2002). This helps the organisations leaders with wide range of information regarding various subjects make informative decision. Leaders who practice participation theory of leadership build a good relationship with all the stakeholders in the organization, whereby they find a chance to associate with the organisations growth and development (Rampur, n.d). In case the leader fails to practice this kind of leadership, other stakeholders will fin d it difficult to associate with the organisation’s development, hence making it unrealistic to maintain. Marketing development department, for example, must be willing and able to adopt this strategy mainly because it enhances creativity and innovativeness (Jones, Jones George 2011). Holding the fact that the current business environment is changing, it is important for the organisations’ leaders to account for all the suggestions made by professionals within the departments (Rampur, n.d). This will help the organisations competitiveness be realistic and up to date. Failing to accommodate these, the organisations can not withstand various environmental changes (Finkelstein, 2009). Management Theory This kind of leadership is implemented in a competitive business environment where rewards and motivation are expected by the supporting staffs (Covey, 2004. P. 13). A leader in this scope ensures that results are delivered by the staffs with an intention to meet a specifi c goal. Although this kind of leadership can be said to be dictatorial, it is necessary when the leading figure is a result of the oriented person. This kind of leadership ensures that his or her organisation meets the expected targets, maintaining a change in the organisations (Few, 2006). Most of the businesses that are managed by this kind of leadership are aimed at surviving all the environmental, and it is the responsibility of the leader to facilitate this transition. For example, in the financial industry, leaders ensure that their organisations retain a good reputation in terms of both the effectiveness of the services as well as organisations profit motive agenda (Daft, 2011.p. 41). It is the role of the leader to oversee this, so he or she must be willing to motivate the employees if their performance is poor. This ensures that all perform duties well, hence achieving effective organisationsal change (Daft, 2011.p. 41). Relationship Theory It is also known as a transformat ional theory where reflects the relationship between the leaders and the followers in an organisations is only reflected. This theory, if practiced in an organisation, helps to improve the relationship between the leaders and the followers (Daft, 2011.p. 41). If the relationship between the two sides is profound, it then means that the organisations will have a good working relation, hence effectively transforming areas of challenges as a team (Covey, 2004). Teamwork is more embraced by this theory than by any other approach, and all the organisations members work as a team hence delivering more (Covey, 2004. P. 76). A good example to demonstrate this contribution is a marketing department. All the stakeholders in this department must be willing and able to work as a team for the good of their result. One can perform the duty of this department alone. Creativity and innovativeness of the members are necessary for this department to get results (Covey, 2004. P. 12).. Conclusion Prude nt leadership is the key of the organisationsal performance. A leader should be able to relate well with other stakeholders, be able to make decisions as well as manage and direct the others while meeting the organisations duties. With all these leadership qualities, the leader has the capacity, therefore, to impact an organisationsal change in his or her organisations, irrespective of the environmental condition prevailing (Cini, 1999, p 23). 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Yeo, RR 2001, Encyclopaedic visions: scientific dictionaries and enlightenment culture, University Cambridge Press, Cambridge. This essay on Theories of Leadership and the Effective organisations Change was written and submitted by user Vance Marshall to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.